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Quantifying the Contributions of Environmental Factors to Prostate Cancer and Detecting Risk-Related Diet Metrics and Racial Disparities.
Pubmed ID
37139178 (View this publication on the PubMed website)
Digital Object Identifier
Cancer Inform. 2023; Volume 22: Pages 11769351231168006
Zhang W, Zhang K
  • Bioinformatics Core of Xavier NIH RCMI Center of Cancer Research, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA, USA.

The relevance of nongenetic factors to prostate cancer (PCa) has been elusive. We aimed to quantify the contributions of environmental factors to PCa and identify risk-related diet metrics and relevant racial disparities. We performed a unique analysis of the Diet History Questionnaire data of 41 830 European Americans (EAs) and 1282 African Americans (AAs) in the PLCO project. The independent variables in the regression models consisted of age at trial entry, race, family history of prostate cancer (PCa-fh), diabetes history, body mass index (BMI), lifestyle (smoking and coffee consumption), marital status, and a specific nutrient/food factor (X). P < .05 and a 95% confidence interval excluding zero were adopted as the criteria for determining a significant difference (effect). We established a priority ranking among PCa risk-related genetic and environmental factors according to the deviances explained by them in the multivariate Cox-PH regression analysis: age > PCa-fh > diabetes ⩾ race > lifestyle ⩾marital-status ⩾BMI > X. We confirmed previous studies showing that (1) high protein and saturated fat levels in diet were related to increased PCa risk, (2) high-level supplementary selenium intake was harmful rather than beneficial for preventing PCa, and (3) supplementary vitamin B6 was beneficial for preventing benign PCa. We obtained the following novel findings: high-level organ meat intake was an independent predictor for increased aggressive PCa risk; supplementary iron, copper and magnesium increased benign PCa risk; and the AA diet was "healthy" in terms of the relatively lower protein and fat levels and was "unhealthy" in that it more commonly contained organ meat. In conclusion, we established a priority ranking among the contributing factors for PCa and identified several risk-related diet metrics and the racial disparities. Our findings suggested some new approaches to prevent PCa such as restriction of organ meat intake and supplementary microminerals.

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