Differential effects of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate administration on vaginal microbiome in Hispanic White and Black women.
Yang L, Hao Y, Hu J, Kelly D, Li H, Brown S, Tasker C, Roche NE, Chang TL, Pei Z
The use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), a 3-monthly injectable hormonal contraceptive, is associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition possibly through alteration of the vaginal microbiome. In this longitudinal interventional study, we investigated the impact of DMPA administration on the vaginal microbiome in Hispanic White and Black women at the baseline (visit 1), 1 month (visit 2), and 3 months (visit 3) following DMPA treatment by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. No significant changes in the vaginal microbiome were observed after DMPA treatment when Hispanic White and Black women were analysed as a combined group. However, DMPA treatment enriched total vaginosis-associated bacteria (VNAB) and Prevotella at visit 2, and simplified the correlational network in the vaginal microbiome in Black women, while increasing the network size in Hispanic White women. The microbiome in Black women became more diversified and contained more VNAB than Hispanic White women after DMPA treatment. While the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio and Lactobacillus to Prevotella (L/P) ratio were comparable between Black and Hispanic White women at visit 1, both ratios were lower in Black women than in Hispanic White women at visit 2. In conclusion, DMPA treatment altered the community network and enriched VNAB in Black women but not in Hispanic White women. The Lactobacillus deficiency and enrichment of VNAB may contribute to the increased risk of HIV acquisition in Black women. Future studies on the impact of racial differences on the risk of HIV acquisition will offer insights into developing effective strategies for HIV prevention. Abbreviations: DMPA: depot medroxyprogesterone acetate; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; OTU: operational taxonomic unit; STI: sexually transmitted infections; VNAB: vaginosis-associated bacteria.