A large multiethnic genome-wide association study of prostate cancer identifies novel risk variants and substantial ethnic differences.
Hoffmann TJ, Van Den Eeden SK, Sakoda LC, Jorgenson E, Habel LA, Graff RE, Passarelli MN, Cario CL, Emami NC, Chao CR, Ghai NR, Shan J, Ranatunga DK, Quesenberry CP, Aaronson D, Presti J, Wang Z, Berndt SI, Chanock SJ, McDonnell SK, French AJ, Schaid DJ, Thibodeau SN, Li Q, Freedman ML, Penney KL, Mucci LA, Haiman CA, Henderson BE, Seminara D, Kvale MN, Kwok PY, Schaefer C, Risch N, Witte JS
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of prostate cancer in Kaiser Permanente health plan members (7,783 cases, 38,595 controls; 80.3% non-Hispanic white, 4.9% African-American, 7.0% East Asian, and 7.8% Latino) revealed a new independent risk indel rs4646284 at the previously identified locus 6q25.3 that replicated in PEGASUS (N = 7,539) and the Multiethnic Cohort (N = 4,679) with an overall P = 1.0 × 10(-19) (OR, 1.18). Across the 6q25.3 locus, rs4646284 exhibited the strongest association with expression of SLC22A1 (P = 1.3 × 10(-23)) and SLC22A3 (P = 3.2 × 10(-52)). At the known 19q13.33 locus, rs2659124 (P = 1.3 × 10(-13); OR, 1.18) nominally replicated in PEGASUS. A risk score of 105 known risk SNPs was strongly associated with prostate cancer (P < 1.0 × 10(-8)). Comparing the highest to lowest risk score deciles, the OR was 6.22 for non-Hispanic whites, 5.82 for Latinos, 3.77 for African-Americans, and 3.38 for East Asians. In non-Hispanic whites, the 105 risk SNPs explained approximately 7.6% of disease heritability. The entire GWAS array explained approximately 33.4% of heritability, with a 4.3-fold enrichment within DNaseI hypersensitivity sites (P = 0.004).
SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our findings of independent risk variants, ethnic variation in existing SNP replication, and remaining unexplained heritability have important implications for further clarifying the genetic risk of prostate cancer. Our findings also suggest that there may be much promise in evaluating understudied variation, such as indels and ethnically diverse populations.