Prostate cancer screening in the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial of the National Cancer Institute.
Gohagan JK, Prorok PC, Kramer BS, Cornett JE
Screening for prostate cancer and subsequent treatment is of unknown benefit but carries known treatment related morbidity and mortality risks. The recent enthusiasm for screening in the United States contrasts sharply with the more cautious attitudes of the European and Canadian medical communities. Current data from screening series without randomization and controls are inadequate to determine screening benefit. The prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer (randomized, controlled) screening trial of the National Cancer Institute, to include 74,000 men (and 74,000 women) 60 to 74 years old, has a design power of 90% to determine a 20% reduction of prostate cancer mortality from a baseline and 3 subsequent annual screens using prostate specific antigen and digital rectal examination. Randomization of participants into this trial began on November 16, 1993. Ten screening centers nationwide, a coordinating center, a laboratory and a biorepository are participating under contract.