Association between Dietary and Supplemental Antioxidants Intake and Lung Cancer Risk: Evidence from a Cancer Screening Trial
- 1 Vanke School of Public Health, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
- 2 Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
- 3 Faculty of Science, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0G4, Canada
- * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Previous studies provided inconsistent results on the effects of antioxidant nutrient intake on lung cancer prevention. We aimed to evaluate the association between antioxidant consumption from food and supplemental sources and lung cancer incidence. Data were obtained from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial. A total of 98,451 participants were included in the data analysis. We used a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between antioxidant intake and lung cancer risk. Dose-response assessments for individual nutrients were conducted. We also selected the model for the best combination of antioxidants for reducing lung cancer risk using machine learning methods. After the median follow-up of 12.2 years, 1642 new cases were identified. Intake of the calculated HRs indicated a trend for a higher quartile of food-based Composite Dietary Antioxidant Index (fCDAI) associated with a lower lung cancer risk after adjusting for covariates (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.79; P for trend < 0.001). Protective effects of dietary antioxidant intake were observed across all individual antioxidant micronutrients except magnesium. Random forests model suggested the dietary intake group of α-carotene, magnesium, vitamin C, vitamin E, lycopene, selenium, lutein, and zeaxanthin, and β-carotene had the most favorable effects on lung cancer prevention. Higher consumption of antioxidants from food sources has a protective effect against lung cancer, while no effects were shown in the supplemental group. It is recommended to consume a combination of various antioxidants due to the potential benefits from the interaction, while more research should be performed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of antioxidant synergic effects on lung cancer risk reduction.