Weight Change and Incident Distal Colorectal Adenoma Risk in the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial.
He S, Berndt SI, Kunzmann AT, Kitahara CM, Huang WY, Barry KH
BACKGROUND: Although obesity is a known risk factor, the impact of weight change on colorectal adenoma risk is less clear and could have important implications in disease prevention. We prospectively evaluated weight change in adulthood and incident colorectal adenoma.
METHODS: We assessed weight change during early-late (age 20 years to baseline, ie, ages 55-74 years), early-middle (20-50 years), and middle-late (50 years-baseline) adulthood using self-reported weight data in relation to incident distal adenoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (cases = 1053; controls = 16 576). For each period, we defined stable weight as greater than -0.5 kg to less than or equal to 1 kg/5 years, weight loss as less than or equal to -0.5 kg/5 years, and weight gain as greater than 1-2, greater than 2-3, or greater than 3 kg/5 years. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression; all tests were 2-sided.
RESULTS: Compared with stable weight, weight loss during early-late adulthood was associated with reduced adenoma risk (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.34 to 0.86), particularly among those who were overweight or obese at age 20 years (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.84). Results were similar for early-middle adulthood but less pronounced for middle-late adulthood. Weight gain greater than 3 kg/5 years during early-late adulthood was associated with increased risk (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.58, P trend < .001). Findings appeared stronger among men (OR for >3 kg/5 years = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.80) than women (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.79 to 1.50, P interaction = .21).
CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss in adulthood was associated with reduced adenoma risk, particularly for those who were overweight or obese, whereas weight gain greater than 3 kg/5 years increased risk. Findings underscore the importance of healthy weight maintenance throughout adulthood in preventing colorectal adenoma.