Reproductive and hormonal factors and bladder cancer risk: a prospective study and meta-analysis.
Xu X, Mo Q, Shen H, Wang S, Liu B
Bladder cancer is three to four times more common among men than women. The objectives of this study were to explore the association between reproductive and hormonal factors and risk of bladder cancer among women using data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cohort, and to perform a meta-analysis based on cohort studies. After a median of 11.6 years of follow-up, 237 incident bladder cancer cases were identified in PLCO cohort. Compared with menopause at 50-54 years, earlier menopause (< 45 years) was positively but not significantly associated with bladder cancer risk (HR 1.25, 95% CI 0.91-1.71; p = 0.176). In the meta-analysis, parous women had significantly lower bladder cancer risk than nulliparous women (pooled HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.73-0.86). In addition, menopause at an earlier age was significantly associated with a higher risk of bladder cancer (pooled HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.40). In conclusion, this study indicated a greater risk in bladder cancer among nulliparous women and among women with early menopause. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms.