Impact of current versus former smoking status on the outcomes of non-metastatic non-small cell lung cancer treated with upfront surgery; findings from the National Lung Screening Trial.
- a Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine , Ain Shams University , Cairo , Egypt.
Objective: To evaluate the impact of current versus former smoking status on the outcomes of non-metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with upfront surgery. Methods: This is a post-hoc analysis of patients diagnosed with NSCLC, stage I-III within the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to delineate the impact of smoking status on overall survival. Moreover, Cox regression analyses were utilized to assess factors predicting overall and lung cancer-specific survival. Results: A total of 773 patients were included in the current study. Former smokers (at the time of randomization of the NLST study) were 338 patients while current smokers were 435 patients. For overall survival, former smokers have better outcomes compared to current smokers (P = 0.023). Within multivariate Cox regression analysis, the following factors were predictive of worse overall survival: older age (P = 0.037), male gender (P = 0.022), current smoking (P = 0.022), advanced stage (P < 0.001) and preexisting stroke (P = 0.015). Likewise, the following factors were predictive of worse lung cancer-specific survival in multivariate Cox regression analysis: current smoking (P = 0.009) and advanced stage (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Among patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with upfront surgery, current smokers have worse overall and lung cancer-specific survival compared to former smokers. Expert opinion: Among patients with non-metastatic NSCLC treated with upfront surgical resection, current smokers have worse overall, lung cancer-specific and progression-free survival compared to former smokers. Smoking cessation counseling should be incorporated into management strategies of early stage NSCLC.